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At the election on 6 November, Hoover was overwhelmingly successful. He carried forty states, including five from the Old South, with a total of electoral votes. Smith carried eight states with an electoral vote of The popular plurality of Hoover over Smith was 6,, in a total vote of 36,, Fausold, Martin L. The Presidency of Herbert C. The presidential campaign of began in earnest with the holding of the Republican National Convention at Chicago from 14 to 16 June. The platform praised the Hoover record, including his program for combating the depression.

After a long debate a "wet-dry" plank on Prohibition was adopted, which favored giving the people an opportunity to pass on a repeal amendment.

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On the fourth ballot, Gov. Smith and ten other candidates. John Nance Garner of Texas was selected as the vice presidential candidate. The platform pledged economy, a sound currency, unemployment relief, old-age and unemployment insurance under state laws, the "restoration of agriculture," and repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment together with immediate legalization of beer.

After a campaign featuring Roosevelt's promise of "a new deal," the elections were held on 5 November.

Smear tactics, skulduggery, and the début of American democracy.

The popular vote for each party was as follows: Democratic, 22,,; Republican, 15,,; Socialist, ,; Socialist-Labor, 33,; Communist, ,; Prohibition, 81,; Liberty, 53,; and Farmer-Labor, 7, The electoral vote was for the Democrats and 59 for the Republicans. Alfred M. Landon of Kansas and Frank Knox, a Chicago publisher, were nominated for the presidency and vice-presidency, respectively. The platform strongly denounced the New Deal administration, from both constitutional and economic viewpoints.

It pledged the Republicans "to maintain the American system of constitutional and local self-government" and "to preserve the American system of free enterprise. President Roosevelt and Vice President Garner were renominated without opposition. The platform vigorously defended the New Deal and pledged its continuance. When the election was held on 3 November, the Democrats again won an overwhelming victory, carrying every state except Maine and Vermont.

The popular vote for each party was as follows: Democratic, 27,,; Republican, 16,,; Union, ,; Socialist, ,; Communist, 80,; Prohibition, 37,; and Socialist-Labor, 12, The Democrats received electoral votes while the Republicans received only 8. Burns, James MacGregor.

Neck and Neck to the White House – McFarland

Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Although either Robert A. Taft, Arthur H. Vandenberg, or Thomas E. Dewey was expected to be the Republican candidate, the nomination was won by Wendell L.

Willkie at Philadelphia, 28 June, on the sixth ballot. As president of a large utilities corporation Willkie had fought the New Deal, but in foreign affairs he was an internationalist, and with Europe at war, this fact commended him to the liberal element of the party, which carried his nomination against the Old Guard.

The nomination of a liberal by the Republicans, together with the international crisis, in turn made the nomination of Franklin D. Roosevelt by the Democrats Chicago, 16 July a practical certainty, even though his running for a third term was unprecedented. Foreign affairs dominated the campaign.

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  • Both candidates promised aid to the Allies; both promised at the same time to keep the United States out of foreign wars. Roosevelt and Henry A. Wallace, secretary of agriculture, received 27,, popular and electoral votes against 22,, popular and 82 electoral votes for Willkie and Charles L.

    McNary of Oregon. Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom.


    Thomas E. Dewey, governor of New York, was nominated by the Republican convention in Chicago on 26 June with little opposition. John W. Bricker of Ohio was chosen as his running mate. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running for a fourth term, encountered even less opposition at the Democratic convention in Chicago. The real struggle revolved around the choice of a vice presidential candidate. With Roosevelt's support, Vice President Henry Wallace could probably have been nominated for another term, but the opposition to Wallace from within the party convinced the president that a compromise candidate had to be found.

    James F. Byrnes of South Carolina was acceptable to the White House and to the party conservatives, but not to labor, in particular not to Sidney Hillman of the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Accordingly, Sen. Harry S. Truman of Missouri was nominated on the second ballot on 20 July.

    In the November election Roosevelt received 25,, popular and electoral votes to Dewey's 22,, popular and 99 electoral votes.

    White House rivals still neck and neck

    The Democrats preserved their control of both houses of Congress. Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Republicans, having gained control of Congress in and confidently expecting to turn the apparently un-popular Truman administration out of power in the autumn elections, for the first time in the party's history renominated a defeated candidate, Thomas E. Dewey, at the convention meeting in Philadelphia on 21 June. The Democrats, on the other hand, suffered from severe internal conflicts.

    Truman's nomination at Philadelphia on 15 July roused no enthusiasm. Radicals left the party and, meeting in the same city on 22 July, nominated Henry A. Wallace and Sen. Glen Taylor of Idaho as the candidates of the Progressive party. Southerners, offended by the civil rights planks of the Democratic platform, also seceded and in Birmingham, Alabama, on 17 July, formed the States' Rights Democratic Party, with Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina and Gov. Fielding L. Wright of Mississippi as their candidates.

    Under these circumstances Truman's candidacy appeared to be hopeless.

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    • The president, however, proved to be a whistle-stop campaigner of unexpected ability. Moreover, he enjoyed the support not only of organized labor and of African American voters but, as it turned out—to the great surprise of prophets and pollsters—of midwestern farmers as well. The election was close—Truman retired for the evening on election night thinking he had lost.

      He and Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky polled 24,, popular and electoral votes against 21,, popular and electoral votes for Dewey and Gov. Earl Warren of California. Thurmond polled 1,, popular votes and the 38 electoral votes of South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Wallace won 1,, popular votes. The Democrats regained control of Congress by small majorities. Hamby, Alonzo L. Karabell, Zachary. After a long and bitter struggle, the internationalist wing of the Republican party succeeded on 11 July in bringing about the nomination of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower against the opposition of Sen. Robert A. Taft and his supporters.

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      The Democrats, following the Republicans to Chicago ten days later, turned to Gov. Stevenson of Illinois, who consented to become a candidate only at the last moment. In the campaign that followed Stevenson suffered from revelations of corruption in the Truman administration, from the widespread dissatisfaction with the seemingly inconclusive results of the war in Korea, and from the vague feeling that it was "time for a change. He and Sen.